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Usage of Gilham’s Manual

By Erik Mink, 4th Virginia

Many articles have appeared in The Camp Chase Gazette concerning the usage of “correct” drill manuals by reenactment groups. These articles have down-played the importance, and even the utilization, of William Gilham’s Manual of Instruction for the Volunteers and Militia of the United States [Confederate States]. I remember being asked once, when filming the movie Gettysburg, if we ever had any concrete evidence that Gilham, instead of William Hardee’s Infantry Tactics, was used by the “Stonewall Brigade.” I was forced to reply in the negative, but it prompted me to start searching, what follows is some evidence that certainly suggests that we chose wisely.

The first account I came upon was found in Henry Kyd Douglas’ I Rode With Stonewall. Interestingly enough, his mention of the use of Gilham involves Jackson. The incident occurred around August 1861 when Douglas, as a junior lieutenant in the 2nd Virginia, was officer of the guard on a dark and wet night. Jackson had been stopped by the guard and asked the countersign, which he refused to give. He asked Douglas under whose authority he was acting, and Douglas replied: “My authority was Gilham’s Manual. He told me to quietly and apparently without any annoyance to reinstruct the sentinel and bring Gilham to his tent the next morning. I did both and he was very cordial in the morning reception, admitted Gilham’s authority, but had a copy of his order given to me.”[1]
Although Jackson may not have been completely familiar with Gilham’s content, he obviously recognized its use among his troops. While Douglas’ mention places Gilham in use by the 2nd Virginia, it does appear that some of the other regiments of the Brigade were also deferring to his authority. Gilham’s Manual was written with the militia in mind, thus it is quite possible that some of the prewar Virginia units may have secured copies in the short period between its publishing and the commencement of hostilities. The 5th Virginia was composed of some of the finest militia units in the Shenandoah Valley, one of which was commanded by Captain John H.S. Funk. In the summer of 1861, Captain Funk sent his brother, Sergeant Jefferson W.O. Funk, on recruiting detail to Winchester. In an undated letter to his brother, Captain Funk requested that his brother: “Go to Leiut. Mesmer’s house & tell his wife that Bud Newton said send him Gilums [sic] drill book.”[2] Lieut. John R. Mesmer was a member of Company K, 5th Virginia, while Capt. James W. Newton commanded Company E in the summer of 1861. The fact that Capt. Newton had a copy of Gilham’s Manual at his home would indicate that he may have acquired it while in the militia prior to the war.

While some in the 5th Virginia may have obtained their copies in the prewar Virginia military, the officers in the 33rd Virginia apparently had to wait to purchase their manuals from the Confederate publishers. Although Virginia had commissioned Gilham to author the drill manual, upon its completion they found it too large and too expensive for their uses. The prewar edition was published by Charles Desilver of Philadelphia, but upon Virginia’s secession, they were now unavailable. Nonetheless, the enterprising Richmond publishing firm West & Johnston decided to print their own edition which appeared for sale in the beginning of August 1861. In order to acquire copies of the manuals, the Virginia officers were forced to purchase their own, thus was the case with the 33rd Virginia. Captain Frederick W.M. Holliday of Company E apparently made a trip to Richmond around August 1861 and took orders for Gilham’s Manual, as well as Army Regulations – 2nd Edition. In his collected papers at Duke University is the list he made of 33rd officers wishing copies of Est & Johnson’s edition of Gilham’s Manual. The names listed are John Gatewood Co. C, George W. Allen Co. F, David H. Walton Co. K, and Lieut. Martin Strickler Co. B. Unfortunately, General Jackson is also listed, but he declined a copy of Gilham yet needed a copy of Army Regulations.[3]

The above documentation indicates that at least during the first year of the war, the “Stonewall” Brigade used Gilham’s Manual. What many reenactors do not understand is that it made very little difference what manual the different companies and regiments used. For the Confederacy, there was only one manual that went beyond the battalion level, Winifield Scott’s Infantry Tactics. The third volume of Scott addresses the “Evolutions of the Line,” which might explain why Francis B. Jones, AAG to Colonel Jackson, wrote to his mother on June 4, 1861: “Do tell Sue not to allow any book of tactics to go out of my house to any body who ever it may be . . . . let her send me a copy of the “Militia Law”, the 3d Vol. Of Scotts Tactic’s.”[4] So it might be perfectly reasonable for different regiments within the same brigade to be using different battalion manuals, yet all adhering to Scott’s “Evolution of the Line.” But for our impression, it appears that we have chosen correctly with regards to Gilham’s Manual.


[1]. Henry Kyd Douglas. I Rode with Stonewall. Chapel Hill:The University of North Carolina Press. 1968. P. 14.
[2]. Undated letter of J.H.S. Fund to J.W.O. Funk. Typescript in Fredericksburg-Spotsylvania NMP.
[3]. Undated inventory of F.W.M. Holliday. Special Collections Library. Duke University. Thanks to Brian Swidal of “Co. E, 33rd VA” for discovering this information.
[4]. Margaretta Barton Colt. Defend the Valley: A Shenandoah Family in the Civil War. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. 1994. p. 70.

Christmas with the Men of the Stonewall Brigade

By Austin Williams, 5th Virginia

Few holidays have the emotional resonance in American society as Christmas—it is a cherished time to be among friends and family. For four long years, the men of the Stonewall Brigade’s 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27th, and 33rd Virginia regiments celebrated Christmas apart from their families. Their letters and diaries covering each holiday season are poignant, hopeful, and occasionally humorous. How they lived and what they thought of during these periods sheds some light on how they endured the titanic ordeal of the American Civil War.

For many of the men of the Stonewall Brigade, December 1861 brought the first Christmas they had spent away from home. They were not far from home, however, as the Brigade had been shifted from Centerville to Winchester in early November, giving those men from the lower valley the hope of visiting friends and family. General Jackson, however, kept them busy. The Brigade was dispatched on a mid-December expedition west of Williamsport to destroy Dam No. 5, capturing eight Federal soldiers and suffering only one wounded. The weather was already cold enough for sleeping in tents to be uncomfortable; the men were without even that protection and were forbidden to make fires, but Sergeant John Garibaldi of the 27th Virginia (Company C) reported that they had good overcoats and ample blankets to keep from freezing.

A second expedition resulted in the death of Joshua Parks from the 27h Virginia’s Rockbridge Rifles, although Thomas Smiley of the 5th Virginia (Company D though it was strange that more men did not fall, as “bombs were bursting around us the whole time some of our company picked up peices of shell that fell close to them… after we had been in the dam an hour I went to the top to look around and in the moonlight they could see me when they opened fire upon us the first balls whistled over my head and after that I got out of the way when they opened a perfect shower of balls upon us but we were prety well protected and fortunately no one was hurt.” The bombardment had been fierce enough, however, to convince William Brand of the 5th Virginia (Company E) to renounce cards, although he assured his sister that “it was very seldom that I ever played; when I played it was for mear amusement.” Sergeant Garibaldi informed his wife that the shooting was constant, but that it was not similar to the large battle the Brigade had fought at Manassas: “those that wanted to fight could go and take up a position on this side of the river and fire away as much as they wanted. The general came by one evening and… said pitch in boys it is a free fight. We killed a good many Yankees and they only killed one of us.”

Christmas day in the Shenandoah Valley was beautiful in the opinion of Private Smiley. He was in high spirits, as a package from his sister had just arrived with food and warm clothes. In his return letter, Smiley enclosed a Christmas gift of his own; a button he had taken off the coat of a dead Union soldier at the First Battle of Manassas. The turkey dinner consumed by Private Brand’s unit must have taken some time to cook, as he assured his sister that she would laugh if she say the men cooking for “everyone must have something to say how such & such a thing ought to be done.”

The celebration in the 27th Virginia was livelier, as Sergeant Garibaldi recounted: We have had right merry Christmas, we had plenty to eat such as it was and plenty to drink, pretty near the whole of Holloway’s company was drunk. The Captain bought about 10 or 15 gallons of liquor and gave it to the company, he was right merry himself. The whole of the 27 regiment was almost drunk even the Colonels, they were drunk too.”

Christmas was particularly difficult for Major Elisha Paxton of the 27th Virginia. He received news on December 12th that his wife had given birth to a son. His application for a leave of absence, however, was declined and he longed to “give a kiss and a greeting to the little fellow who has such strong claims upon my love and care.” He cautioned his wife to not be startled if she heard a knock at the door, for it would signal his return rather than a burglar breaking in. He wrote:

“I hope you all may have a happy Christmas, and wish I had the means of sending some nuts and candy for Matthew and Galla. Many who spent last Christmas with wife and children at home will be missing this time — perhaps to join the happy group in merry Christmas never again. But let us be hopeful — at least share the effort to merit fulfilment and fruition of the hopes we cherish so fondly. Now, dearest, good-bye till I see you again, or write. A kiss to the children as my Christmas gift.”

The march to Bath.

On New Year’s Day, Jackson directed his forces to march towards the town of Bath. The campaign was short, but the men fought frigid temperatures, mountainous roads, and several inches of snow. Private Smiley wrote to his sister that “we marched on a solid sheet of ice the wagons runing on the road packed down the snow and it got so icy a person could hardly stand on his feet the horses falling down wagons sliding off the road and breaking to pieces there was several men slipped down and broke their legs and arms there was a great many horses killed and crippled.” Private James McCutchan of Company D, 5th Virginia, judged the toils of the campaign not worth the prize. “There are a few pretty girls there,” he wrote, “some of were very kind to me & others were more ‘union than secesh’ I think.” The land the Brigade had crossed was extremely mountainous and McCuthcan joked that “the people of some places can look up the chimney & see the sheep & goats on the hill side above. There are some children out there that never saw the sun.”

​Looking forward to the next year, Major Paxton was not optimistic. He felt that many men would not reenlist and saw no enthusiastic volunteers to take their place. He successfully predicted the Confederacy’s eventual decision to resort to conscription, but he stated “My judgment dictates to me to pursue the path which I believe to be right, and to trust that the good deed may meet with its just reward. Nothing else could induce me to bear this sad separation from my darling wife and dear little children.” In another letter drafted after New Years, he wrote “The storm may pass away, and, living happily together in after years, it will be a source of pride and happiness to us that the duty patriotism exacts of me now has been faithfully discharged, and the pleasure and comfort of home for the time foregone.”

The Stonewall Brigade was only lightly engaged at the Battle of Fredericksburg in early December 1862, with only 74 causalities out of 1100 men present for duty (four killed, 69 wounded, one missing). The Brigade formed a second line behind Gregg’s Brigade of A.P. Hill’s Division and to the left of Ewell’s Division. Union troops under General George Meade exploited some boggy woods to the front Confederate soldiers during the Bath-RomneyCampaign of Greg’s Brigade to pierce the Confederate line and newly promoted Brigade commander General Elisha Paxton ordered the Brigade forward to fill the gap. The 2nd Virginia, on the right flank of the Brigade, came under fire as they advanced. By the time other units of the Brigade could be maneuvered to support the regiment, the fire of the 2nd Virginia, commanded by Captain John Nadenbusch, had repulsed the enemy’s assault. In Nadenbusch’s report, he was happy to state that his men had done “their duty as only veterans know how” and that “there were but few men in the regiment who disgraced the name of soldier.” After the battle General Paxton applauded the men’s conduct in battle, proclaiming “Your line, as it moved after long hours of weary suspense to the support of your comrades in front, exhibiting the spirit and determination of soldiers resolved to conquer or die.”

Following the battle, the Brigade moved approximately fifteen miles below Fredericksburg to the winter quarters, where they began building shanties. The weather was cold and supplies were short. Paxton wrote to his wife that “Everything in camp stopped except the axes, which run all night and all day, Sunday included. With the soldiers it is, ‘Keep the axes going or freeze.’ They are the substitutes for tents, blankets, shoes, and everything once regarded as necessary for comfort. The misfortune is that even axes are scarce; the army is short of everything, and I fear soon to be destitute of everything.” Thomas Smiley had completed his quarters by January 4th, reporting that “We are now fixed upp prety well having a little tent fixed upp & a chimney in it in which we do our cooking.” Spirits were high and wood plentiful, although William Brand of the 5th Virginia (Company E) informed his wife that the water was bad. He reported high morale, however and stated “the picture of our confederacy is brightning and I hope before long we will be a free and independant people.” Sergeant Garibaldi agreed with Brand’s predictions for victory; “There is a heap talk of peace now in the north, but I wouldn’t put no dependence in them. But after [a]while I think they’ll get tire[d] to get whipt and they will then give us up for a bad joke but that may not be for a good while.”

Thomas Smiley told his sister that Christmas 1862 was a quiet one for the Brigade. “We had a great variety on the table for our christmas dinner, the breakfast consisted of beeff steak & bread, dinner was bread & Roast Beef, & supper out of what was left at breakfast.” Treats such as gingerbread cakes, dried apple pies, and sausages could be had, but for a steep price. Those hoping for liquid celebration were disappointed, with Smiley noting that “there was but few of the men that could afford to get drunk this Christmas as Whiskey is selling at fifteen dollars a quart.”

General Paxton issued a General Order on the first of January, naming the Brigade’s winter quarters Camp Winder in honor of the Brigade commander lost that year at Cedar Mountain. He noted that the Brigade had lost 1220 men killed and wounded in 1862 –more men than were currently present for duty. Of the fifteen field officers elected in the spring, only four remained unscathed. “The eye moistens with an unbidden tear to find that many of the officers whom your free choice had appointed to lead you, of the messmates and comrades you loved, are missing now,” he wrote. In a letter home, Paxton wished his wife and children a happy Christmas and noted that “To many, in summing up and looking over their bereavements for the year, it will be sad enough. We have been more blessed, and should feel grateful for it. To the future I look, not in gloom and despondency, but with the calmness and composure of one who feels that his own destiny in a sea of troubles like this is not in any way under his control.” Paxton would not live to see another Christmas, as he would fall leading his men during the battle of Chancellorsville.

Shot and shell ushered in December 1863 for the Stonewall Brigade. The Battle of Mine Run (Payne’s Farm) does not rank among the great battles of the war, but was a fierce contest to the men who fought in it. Alexander Baird of the 2nd Virginia (Company G) wrote home that “our division was the only one engaged but we whipped a whole corps of Yankees.” After Union skirmishers ambushed the Confederate column, “General Walker immediately sent our regiment out as skirmishers and put us along a fence and told us that we must hold that ground at all hazards,” recounted Baird. “We fought them from twelve o’clock until night when the fighting ceased and a part of Rode’s Division relieved us.” Sergeant Garibaldi simply said “They found out that they couldn’t whip us and they went back over the river.” Among the dead that day was Corporal Samuel Lucas, described by his Sergeant, Thomas Smiley, as one of the best men in the unit. “He was shot in the mouth and killed instantly,” wrote Smiley, “At the time he was struck he was laughing, had his mouth open the ball entered without cutting his lips and ranged upwards.”

The Brigade soon settled into Camp Stonewall Brigade along the Rapidan River near Orange Court House and the men began the construction of winter quarters. Baird informed his mother that “we get tolerable good rations now and I do not think there is any danger of our starving” although these rations were further reduced in January. Daily rations were 18 ounces of flour and a quarter pound of bacon or three quarters of a pound of beef, with occasional issues of sugar, rice, coffee, and dried fruit. Sergeant Garibaldi wrote home requesting warm clothes and a pair of socks from his wife, as he reported just after Christmas that he had not had a pair for two months. He was barefoot as well, but hoped to be able to draw a pair of shoes soon. The men were promised six months of back pay the week or so after Christmas, but the prospect of furloughs home was slim, with only one man out of fifty being allowed to leave. Earl “Carson” Andis, 1st Lieutenant of Company F in the 4th Virginia, informed his wife that he spent a cold and lonesome Christmas, as he was on picket detail on Christmas day. He reported that construction of winter quarters was progressing, however, and that “we will have a snug place when we get it fixed up.”

In the summer of 1863, the prisoner exchange system that had previously meant relatively short confinement for captives had broken down due to Confederate refusal to exchange captured African-American troops. Some of the Brigade’s members therefore spent Christmas 1863 in northern prisons. One such prisoner was Marylander Henry Kyd Douglas, formerly of the 2nd Virginia (Company B) and then Jackson’s staff, who was captured at Gettysburg and sent to Johnson’s Island Prison in Ohio. He recounts Christmas 1863 as follows:

“There came a carload of boxes for the prisoners about Christmas which after reasonable inspection, they were allowed to receive. My box contained more cause for merriment and speculation as to its contents than satisfaction. It had received rough treatment on its way, and a bottle of catsup had broken and its contents very generally distributed through the box. Mince pie and fruit cake saturated with tomato catsup was about as palatable as “embalmed beef” of the Cuban memory; but there were other things. Then, too, a friend had sent me in a package a bottle of old brandy. On Christmas morning I quietly called several comrades up to my bunk to taste the precious fluid of…DISAPPOINTMENT! The bottle had been opened outside, the brandy taken and replaced with water, adroitly recorded, and sent in. I hope the Yankee who played that practical joke lived to repent it and was shot before the war ended.”

Winter quarters around Petersburg, VA.

By Christmas 1864, the Stonewall Brigade was officially no longer in existence, having been decimated during the desperate fight for the Mule Shoe at Spotsylvania and then consolidated with other under-strength units to form Terry’s Brigade, which numbered 1291 men in December. But the remaining men still clung to their identity as one of the Confederacy’s most celebrated units; Private John Dull of the Fifth Virginia (Company D), instructed his wife in December 1864 to direct her letters to the camp of the Stonewall Brigade, Gordon’s Division. The Brigade shifted position in early December to man the trenches south of Petersburg in Dinwiddie County protecting the Southside Railroad. They briefly occupied winter quarters constructed by other Confederate troops who had been ordered farther west, but by December 22nd, Dull informed his wife that they had moved their camp and were building cabins of their own upon pine timbered land belonging to B.F. Hurt along the Boydton Plank Road. The weather was cold and snow had already begun to fall, and, as Dull noted, “a good shelter would be very acceptable.” The work was slowed by lack of axes and tools, but was nearly complete soon after Christmas.

An inspector’s report from December noted that the condition of clothing for Terry’s Brigade was poor, with the exception of the former men of the Stonewall Brigade, who had received recent issues of “excellent clothing” as well as shoes and blankets. These were likely imported uniforms from England, as George Slifer of the 2nd Virginia (Company G) reassured his uncle that he had just drawn “a new inglish suit, so you can see I want nothing but piece and our independence.” Surprisingly, the Brigade was mostly armed with .69 caliber smoothbores during this period, with only some rifled muskets in the command. Not until the end of January had all of the smoothbores been replaced.

A lucky member of Company D was preparing to return home on furlough and Dull asked his wife to give the man food to bring back with him. Acknowledging the shortages plaguing the home front as well as the army, Dull instructed his wife to “send me some meet and flour some dried frute then I can have some pies made hear also some dry [y]east to make raised bred and what ever elce you think best also you may send me twenty or thirty Dollars in money I now it will bee trubblesom to you to send this barrel but it will bee good to me.” He closed his letter with the following line: “Well I must stop for this time hoping the Lord may bless you with a happy Chrismas though I am not with you.” Dull must have passed a pleasant holiday, since his next letter home, dated January 11th, informed his wife that Dull and his five messmates had more food than they could eat, including ham, cabbage, potatoes, beans, dried and fresh apples, flour, cornmeal, pies, cheese, bread, cakes, sausages, dried beef, chicken, dried cherries, jam, butter, molasses, onions… as he said “evrey thing that house ceepers generaley have excep[t] wimon an[d] children .” Although the South’s fortunes were dwindling, Dull remained optimistic. Peace, he wrote, would not come unless the South surrendered and the South would never surrender so long as they maintained an army in the field.

Much of the Brigade celebrated Christmas that year from within Union prison camps. Thomas Read, of the 33rd Virginia’s Company I, wrote to his father a few days before Christmas. He and the other prisoners at Point Lookout were doing well and receiving regular rations. Vegetables, though, were in short supply, and Read requested that his father send money as even just fifty or seventy-five cents would be helpful. But the prisoners otherwise passed their time well and Read mentioned that he spent much of his time reading from his company’s library. Read received a late present near the end of January; the difficulty of passing mail between the lines meant that he received letters his wife had written back in October and November only on January 25th. But she had enclosed in one a lock of her hair, something Read must have cherished as a reminder of those he had left behind and to whom he hoped to soon return.


Douglas, Henry Kyd. I Rode With Stonewall: Being Chiefly the War Experiences of the Youngest Member of Jackson’s Staff from John Brown’s Raid to the Hanging of Mrs. Surratt (Durham: University of NorthCarolina Press, 1968).

Memoir and Memorials: Elisha Franklin Paxton, Brigadier-General, C.S.A.; Composed of his Letters from Camp and Field While an Officer in the Confederate Army, with an Introductory and Connecting Narrative Collected and Arranged by his Son, John Gallatin Paxton (Available fromhttp://docsouth.unc.edu/fpn/paxton/paxton.html).

Records of the Adjutant & Inspector General’s Department, NARA, microcopy M935 (Available from http://www.blueandgraymarching.com/second-corps/terrys-brigade-va.html and http://www.blueandgraymarching.com/second-corps/gordons-division.html).

“Report of Brig. Gen. B. F. Paxton, commanding First (Paxton’s) Brigade”, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Chapter XXXIII, No. 328.

“Report of Capt. J. Q. A. Nadenbousch, Second Virginia Infantry,” The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Chapter XXXIII, No. 330.

Transcript of Alexander S. Baird Letter to his Mother, December 14, 1863 (Available from http://www.stonewallbrigade.com/paynesfarm_history_csa_person_accounts.html).

Transcript of Earl Carson Andis Letter to his wife, December 25, 1863 (Available from http://www.stonewallbrigade.com/wythegrays/history_2.html).

Transcript of James Beard Diary (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/AD1008).

Transcript of James R. McCutchan Letter to Rachel Ann McCutchan, January 28, 1862 (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A0308).

Transcript of John P. Dull letter to Giney Dull, January 11, 1865. (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6131).

Transcript of John P. Dull letter to Giney Dull, December 1, 1864. (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6127).

Transcript of John P. Dull letter to Giney Dull, December 12, 1864. (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6128).

Transcript of John P. Dull letter to Giney Dull, December 22, 1864. (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6129).

Transcript of John Garibaldi Letter to Sarah Poor, December 30, 1861 (Available from http://www.vmi.edu/archives.aspx?id=5153).

Transcript of John Garibaldi Letter to Sarah Garibaldi, January 4, 1863 (Available from http://www.vmi.edu/archives.aspx?id=5153).

Transcript of John Garibaldi Letter to Sarah Garibaldi, December 5, 1863 (Available from http://www.vmi.edu/archives.aspx?id=5153).

Transcript of John Garibaldi Letter to Sarah Garibaldi, December 16, 1863 (Available from http://www.vmi.edu/archives.aspx?id=5153).

Transcript of John Garibaldi Letter to Sarah Garibaldi, January 9, 1863 (Available from http://www.vmi.edu/archives.aspx?id=5153).

Transcript of George L. Slifer Letter to his Uncle, January 7, 1865 (Available from http://www.stonewallbrigade.com/articles_english_supply.html).

Transcript of Thomas Griffin Read letter to Thomas Read, December 19, 1864. (Available from http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/civil_war/letters/read/5015-28.shtml).

Transcript of Thomas Griffin Read letter to Martha White Read, January 25, 1865. (Available from http://www.rarebooks.nd.edu/digital/civil_war/letters/read/5015-30.shtml).

Transcript of Thomas M. Smiley Letter to His Sister, December 26, 1861 (Available fromhttp://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6066).

Transcript of Thomas M. Smiley Letter to His Sister, January 10, 1862 (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6028).

Transcript of Thomas M. Smiley Letter to His Sister, January 4, 1863 (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6069).

Transcript of Thomas M. Smiley letter to His Aunt, December 8, 1863. (Available from http://valley.lib.virginia.edu/papers/A6078).

Transcript of William Francis Brand letter to his wife, January 2, 1863. (Available from http://etext.virginia.edu/civilwar/brand/trans.html).


Usage of Tents

By Eric Mink

The following requisitions were found in the Compiled Service Records (CSR) of Major Jacob R. Braithwaite, member of 33rd Virginia Infantry who served as Quartermaster for the “Stonewall” Brigade during Brigadier General James A. Walker’s tenure, 1863-1864.

[No. 40] Special Requisition
Sept 1st 1863
For, (2) Two Wall Tents + fly For the Stonewall Brigade
One of the tents is required for the men of the Field + Staff of the 1st La. Regt Nichols Brigade
I certify that the above requisition is correct, and that the articles specified are absolutely requisite for the public service, rendered so by the following circumstances: there is no tent at Regt Hd Qrs 4 Va Inft.

J.R. Braithewaite, Maj. Q.M.
Approved J.A. Walker, Brig. Genl.

Sept 12th 1863
For, 28) Twenty Eight Fly tents and 2) Two Wall Tents + Flies. For the use of Stonewall Brigade. The Wall tents are for the use of H Qrs of 5th + 27th Va Inft
I certify that the above Requisition is correct, and that the articles specified are absolutely requisite for the public service, rendered so by the following circumstances: some of the men + officers are without shelter

J.R. Braithewaite, Maj. Q.M.
Approved J.A. Walker , Brig. Gen.

Food For Thought
Reprinted from “The Wythe Grays Chronicle” Issue 4, May 1997

The newest trend in reenacting seems to be the “Campaigner” impression. The belief being that everything must fit on one’s back and camping entails as little tentage as possible. This has given rise to many discussions, and a few arguments, on Confederate usage of tents. Did Lee’ men use tents? Where did they get them? Did they appreciate them, or consider them a nuisance? What follows are some accounts by men from the “Stonewall” Brigade concerning their usage of, and views on, tentage.

When we envision the early months of the war, we often perceive the camps of both North and South as being sprawling cities of canvas. Photographs of the camps around Washington certainly bear this out for the Federals, but was it true within the Confederate lines? As a member of Company L, 4th Virginia Infantry, William Kinzer found himself near Mt. Jackson, Virginia in March of 1862, In his diary entry for March 20m Kinzer notes that with the orders to move:

“The few wagons were loaded with a few mess stores and the blankets, all the tents were piled up, a good many mess boxes, cooking utensils &c were piled up, with the expectation of burning them if the wagons did not return.”[1]

The burning of tents for lack of transportation is very perplexing. Are the tents too large to be carried in the men’s knapsacks, thus necessitating the use of wagons? Preparing to burn the tents would suggest that they weren’t considered of the utmost importance, is this because the men can live without them, or because they can be easily replaced? Regardless, the fact that the men had tents would be something they would longingly remember before the year was out.

At the beginning of the Second Manassas Campaign, the “Stonewall” Brigade, as well as Jackson’s entire command, would have to make do without tents or excess baggage. Colonel William Allen, Jackson’s Chief of Ordnance, stated in a post-war essay that during the 1862 summer campaign, the:

“men had been compelled to store their knapsacks, I think at Harrisonburg, and it was some months before they saw them again.”[2]

Apparently, some of the men never saw their knapsacks or tents again, for as late as October 29, 1862 James B. McCutchan of Co. D, 5th Virginia was complaining that:

“The nights are pretty cold, cold enough to have tent, don’t know whether we are going to gent any or not.”[3]

The men wouldn’t have long to wait, as they were shortly involved in the Fredericksburg Campaign and then settled into winter camp.

At the end of April 1863, Lee’s men were roused from their winter camps by Joseph Hooker’s move into the Wilderness around Chancellorsville. The soldiers of the “Stonewall” Brigade would not be heavily engaged until May 3 when they, along with Jackson’s entire corps now commanded by J.E.B. Stuart, attacked the Union artillery drawn up on an elevation called Hazel Grove. The Yankee cannoneers were forced to retreat quickly, saving most of their guns but losing many a caisson and limber. Following the battle, Captain Jacob Golladay of Co. B, 33rd Virginia wrote his brother that:

“We are encamped in the woods without shelter. We captured an immense quantity of gun shrouds which we use in the place of tents. They are a very good substitute by splicing them together.”[4]

These large canvas tarps, designed to cover the Union cannon, seemed to work in a pinch. Improvisation seemed to grow from necessity, Exactly a year later the men of the “Stonewall” Brigade would have reason to thank the Yankee foe for being well supplied.

As had happened in 1863, Lee’s army was aroused from their winter camps in 1864 by the movements of the Army of the Potomac into the Wilderness. Becoming engaged on May 5, the soldiers of the “Stonewall” Brigade held their ground until the Yankees left their front two days later. When the Yankees departed, they also left many of their blankets, gum cloths, and tents. A few days later, on the eve of their near destruction, the men of the “Stonewall” Brigade were in the trenches of the “Mule Shoe” salient near Spotsylvania Court House. Lieutenant Thomas Doyle of Co. E, 33rd Virginia wrote in his memoirs that:

“About 12 P.M. it commenced to rain and continued all night making the trenches a most uncomfortable place, but thanks to the excellent tent-flies so abundantly supplied by the 6th Federal Corps in the Wilderness, the men were able to keep tolerably dry.”[5]

Unfortunately for the men of the “Stonewall” Brigade, the tents did little to keep their powder dry. The next day, May 12, the Virginians” position would be overrun and the “Stonewall” Brigade would cease to exist as an independent unit.

It seems that the “Stonewall” Brigade dealt with the same inconsistent supply system as did the rest of the Army of Northern Virginia. The fact that the lack of, or usage of, tents would make it into letters, diaries, and memoirs of these men would certainly suggest that shelter was constantly on their minds. Whether supplied by their government, picked up from the Yankees, or fashioned out of canvas gun covers, tenets were important to these men and if they had an option, they would use them.


[1] Typescript of Diary of William T. Kinzer, West Virginia Collection, West Virginia University Library, Morgantown, WV.
[2] Colonel William Allen. “Reminiscences of Field Ordnance Service with the Army of Northern Virginia – 1863-‘5”. Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume XIV (1886), p. 141.
[3] Typescript of James B. McCutchan Letter, October 29, 1862. Rockbridge County Historical Society, Lexington, VA.
[4] Typescript of Jacob Golladay Jr. Letter, May 8m 1863. Hadley Library, Winchester, VA.
[5] Typescript Memoir of Thomas S. Doyle. Fredericksburg-Spotsylvania NMP.

Stonewall Brigade 1861 Impression Guidelines

By Bret Sumner, 4th Virginia

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief summary of preliminary research findings for the uniforms and equipment of the Virginia volunteer companies originating from the Shenandoah Valley in the Spring of 1861 that later formed part of the First Brigade under General Jackson at First Manassas. This article is by no means an exhaustive research paper; rather, its purpose is to provide general guidance for an appropriate impression for June/July 1861.

At the start, I would like to note that it seems to me that there has always been a notion that a civilian impression is entirely acceptable for Virginia volunteer troops at a First Manassas event (plus, another attraction is that the financial outlay for a basic civilian impression is minimal). While a civilian impression is probably most appropriate for certain companies raised in the deep south and then hastily transported to Virginia, I personally believe that the Virginia volunteer soldiers where fairly well uniformed and that there was a certain level of uniformity on the company level at the time the company was formed in the spring of 1861.

As this news article excerpt notes, the civilian population of the Shenandoah Valley appears to have taken great efforts to produce uniforms for their new soldiers:

“The ladies of Staunton, and especially the pupils of the different Female Institutes here, have entwined their brows with glorywreaths of evergreen, which beautifully reflect the fresh and buoyant courage of their hearts. For days they have been busily engaged in making the uniforms of the new volunteer companies, scarcely permitting twenty four hours to pass after the order had been placed in their hands, ere the full uniform, neatly made, was presented to the young soldier. What a touching evidence of the affection of these fair daughters of Virginia and the South for the sunny clime of their nativity. The sweet heart caparison her lover, and with a smile and a tear bids him go and dare and do, and then return for his reward in the gift of the hand that fashioned the badge of his calling God bless the sweet girls, and God speed and protect the brave boys.”
The Vindicator, April 26, 1861, p.2, c.4 (Staunton, Virginia).

In a memoir, John Newton Lyle, a first lieutenant for a company from Rockbridge county, explains how the members obtained their first uniforms:

“The ladies of Rockbridge county . . . sent word that they would equip and send us forth as their special knights to do battle for their dear old mother, Virginia . . . And right royally did our ladies fair prepare us for the camp and march. Each lad was provided with everything a fond mother might dream her son might need, even to a needlebook, buttons and thread, linen gaiters, a havelock to screen his neck from the rays of the sun, and a red flannel waistband towear next to the skin to keep off the diarrhea. They made our uniforms with their own hands. To do this work, they employed a tailor to cut out, whilst they formed a circle and did the sewing in one of the public halls of the town”

Another news article describes the appearance of a newly formed company, the Augusta Riflemen, and discusses the cost for equipping them:

“. . . . . . Capt. Harman’s company has appeared in full dress parade, presenting an attractive and truly soldierly appearance. The soldiers themselves are not only Augusta men, but the cloth from which their uniforms were made was manufactured at the Wollen Factory of Messrs. Crawford & Co. at this place. The County Court made an appropriation of $3,000 to equip the company, but the actual cost will not amount to more than from $300 to $500. Such an example of economy is worthy of imitation. Augusta can well trust such with her credit and her honor.”
The Vindicator, April 26, 1861, p. 2, c. 2 (Staunton, Virginia)

These materials suggests that soon after Virginia’s secession in April 1861, uniforms were being made at a fairly rapid pace for the new volunteers.

Furthermore, while I cannot offer documentation (which I recognize as a crime even for an amateur historian like myself), I do believe that, while there was a great rush and patriotic fervor to go off to war, most volunteers wanted to “look the part” and wear the uniform of a soldier and that most newly formed companies attempted to fashion some form uniformity amongst themselves. As the above materials may suggest, I believe that many volunteer infantry companies from the Shenandoah Valley had their first uniforms made at home fairly quickly and received support at the county level to procure the necessary fabric and garments.


The following was published in the Staunton newspaper to provide new recruits with guidance on what to bring with them when they first joined their company:

“The following is a list of articles necessary to a soldier’s comfort bring all of them you can, or the best substitute you can obtain: Two flannel over shirts, 2 woolen under shirts, 2 pair white Cotton drawers, 2 pair woolen socks, 2 pair cotton socks, 2 colored handkerchiefs, 2 pair stout shoes, 3 towels, one blanket (hole in the middle), 1 blanket for cover, 1 broad brim hat, 1 pound castile soap, 2 pounds bar soap, one belt knife, some stout linen thread, large needles, thimble and a bit of bees wax; some buttons, and some paper of pins, all in a small buckskin or stout cloth bag, 1 overcoat, 1 painted canvass cloth, 7 feet 4 inches long and 5 feet wide.”
Staunton, June 7, 1861

Excerpts from Supplemental Official Records – Company Reports

The following uniform descriptions were obtained from my review of April-July 1861 company reports found in the supplement to the Official Records of the Confederate Army. These companies were present at Harper’s Ferry in May 1861 and were soon formed into the regiments that comprised the First Brigade under General Jackson at Manassas.

Mountain Guards – April 19, 1861 – “The company left home with only a fatigue uniform (red flannel shirt and gray pants).”

Southern Guard – “Came into service with gray uniform, [illegible] coat and pants and United States navy cap and blue flannel jackets. Have new checked shirt. All the uniform furnished by the company and Augusta County.”

Augusta Grays – “Uniforms in bad condition of gray woolen goods.”

West View Infantry – April 29, 1861 – “The company uniform consists of one suit viz: gray pants and fatigue jacket.”

Staunton Rifles – “Substantial uniform furnished by Augusta County. Has sixty-nine minie rifles and complete accoutrements. The company has knapsacks and belts furnished by Augusta County.”

The Richmond Daily Whig provided two separate descriptions of the “Grayson Daredevils” – a volunteer company from the backwood mountains of Virginia which later became Company F of the 4th Virginia:

“The “Dare Devils” from Grayson county, arrived on Tuesday. Their uniform consists of red hunting shirts, but they will change to gray before going into service. The men are unfailing marksmen with the rifle, and, if the opportunity offers, will perforate many of that band who so vauntingly swear that the havoc of war a home and country shall leave us no more.”

“The corps from [Grayson] county are said to be perfect nondescripts – they call themselves “Dare Devils” and deep in leggings, moccasins, and other back-woods appliances. There is not a man in the company who is not over six feet in height.”

Pre-War Militia Uniforms:

Numerous pre-war militia units also were organized into regiments under Jackson at Harper’s Ferry. For example, of the 10 companies that comprised the 4th Virginia Vol. Infantry – 4 were Virginia militia units before the war – Company A (Wythe Grays), Company B (Fort Lewis Volunteers), Company C (Pulaski Guards), Company K (Rockbridge Rifles).

The 1858-59 Virginia militia uniform regulations called for gray single breasted frock coats and gray pants. The 1860 regulations called for blue frock coats. This change in uniform regulations could help explain why certain companies included either blue or gray within their company name desigation (i.e. the “Wythe Grays,” the “Smythe Blues,” the “Botts Grays” or the “Hedgesville Blues”).


The following information was obtained from an original document in Richmond titled:  Message from the Execttive [sic] of the Commonwealth: with Accompanying Documents, Showing the Military and Naval Preparations for the Defence of the State of Virginia, &c. &c. [Richmond, Va. : s.n., 1861]. 95 p. This document details issuances from the Richmond Armory to Jackson’s troops at Harper’s Ferry from April 1 through June 13, 1861. For the sake of convenience and brevity, I have only listed a representative sample of the total issuances detailed in the document. Webbing is one of the most notable issuances to companies at Harper’s Ferry – it appears that thousands of yards of webbing were issued for usage to make cartridge box slings, baldrics, and waist belts.

Captain J.Q. NADENBOUSCH–Martinsburg,
80 Rifle Muskets
80 Cartridge Boxes
80 Bayonet Scabbards
80 Cap Boxes
80 Sets Plates
450 Yards Webbing
1,000 Cartridges
1,200 Caps

Captain A. KOINER–Augusta.
50 Cartridge Boxes
50 Cap Pouches
50 Sets Plates
300 Yards Webbing

Captain JOHN WELSH–Madison.
50 Cap Pouches
30 Altered Muskets
30 Sets Accoutrements
180 Yards Webbing

Captain JAMES A. WALKER–Pulaski.
78 Altered Muskets
10 Bayonet Scabbards
78 Cap Pouches
20 Sets Plates
90 Yards Webbing
16 Cartridge Boxes

Captain J.F. KENT–Wythe.
12 Altered Muskets
12 Cartridge Boxes
12 Bayonet Scabbards
12 Cap Pouches
14 Sets Plates
90 Yards Webbing

Captain P.N. HALE–Grayson.
80 Harper’s Ferry Rifles with sword Bayonets
80 Cartridge Boxes
100 Bayonet Scabbards
100 Cap Pouches
100 Waist Belts and Frogs
100 Waist Plates
90 Yards Webbing
10 Harper’s Ferry Rifles
10 Cartridge Boxes

Major M.G. HARMAN–Staunton.
50 Double Barreled Shot Guns
5,000 Caps
10,000 Flint Cartridges
2 Kegs Rifle Powder
10,000 Musket Caps

The following uniform descriptions were obtained from my review of April-July 1861 company reports found in the supplement to the Official Records of the Confederate Army. These reports indicate that there was a shortage of accoutrements for many of the companies, particularly bayonet scabbards and cap boxes.

Rockbridge Rifles – “Clothing in comfortable [illegible]. Most of the outfit of the company is quite good, sixty-five minie rifles and accoutrements complete. Tents furnished by the county of Rockbridge.”

Mountain Guards – “We were armed with the Deringer rifle. Shortly after arriving at Harper’s Ferry, we exchanged them for the Mississippi rifle, Model 1842, altered to minie. We had forty-five of these rifles, no bayonets, eighty cartridge boxes without belts, twenty cap boxes, no bayonet scabbards.”

Augusta Grays – “Sixty-three percussion muskets, sixty-three cartridge boxes, sixty-three cap boxes, fifty-three bayonet scabbards, and sixty three belts purchased by the captain.”

Ready Rifles of Augusta County – “Fifty-one rifles, forty-eight cartridge boxes, no company equipage except cooking utensils, no cap boxes, no bayonets, no bayonet scabbards, and no tents.”

Montgomery Highlanders – “It is armed with the Mississippi rifle and saber bayonet, which together with its accoutrement on hand, are in good condition. No bayonet scabbards nor a full supply of camp boxes have ever been furnished them.”

Grayson Daredevils – “It is armed with Harper’s Ferry rifle and saber bayonet, which with their accoutrements are in good condition.”

Rockbridge Grays – “The uniform and general outfit of this company was originally very good, but is now greatly worn. The service it has performed has been exceedingly hard upon the men, clothing, and equipment. No tents have been furnished or shelter, just such as they could put up for themselves. It is armed with cadet muskets. No bayonet scabbards or cap boxes. They have old cadet and cartridge box, which is totally inadequate to hold a sufficient supply of ammunition. The arms are in good order.”

Liberty Hall Volunteers – June 18, 1861 – “Its uniforms and clothing are very poor . [illegible] furnished it and it has been much exposed therefrom. It is [illegible] musket which is in good condition. Has no bayonet, scabbards, and no cap boxes were furnished. The captain furnished them to the company at his own expense of —-. The cartridge boxes are old and indifferent.”

Suggested Impressions

Based on the above research materials, the following range of impressions would probably be most appropriate for Jackson’s troops at First Manassas.

For Uniforms:

  1. Pre-War Virginia Militia Uniforms:
    Gray or Blue wool single breasted frock coats
    Gray trousers with black or dark blue stripe
    Grey kepi
  2. Flannel Overshirts or Jackets:
    Gray, red, or blue flannel overshirts (aka “battleshirts” in modern parlance)
    [black piping optional] – I would recommend the Holliday shirt pattern.
    Civilian – or – gray wool or jean trousers
    Slouch hat
  3. Woolen Jacket or Coats – [Warning – This is a bit of speculation on my part] Gray wool sack coat w/o lining – or – homespun gray wool or jean “imitation” frock coat
  4. Generic Civilian Impression:
    For a “minimalist” civilian impression – I would simple recommend a civilian coat or frock or even just wearing a civilian shirt.

In terms of Equipage:

Regardless of the uniforms chosen, I would suggest that all troops should obtain, at a minimum:

  1. White webbing cartridge box sling
  2. Either white webbing waistbelt or civilian style leather belt
  3. White linen haversack (no Federal haversacks)
  4. Tin Drum or wooden canteen (no Federal canteens)

Clothing Issue Records for Company E, 4th Virginia Infantry

by Bret Sumner, 4th Virginia 

The following itemization of clothing issuances for Company E of the 4th Virginia Infantry (“The Montgomery Highlanders”) was transcribed from an original document that Jason O’Brien and I were able to view at the Virginia Tech Special Collections Library. We were even allowed to make a photocopy of a photocopy of the original document. The original document was in fair condition and quite legible. The original records covered only October 1863 until the first week of May 1864. The document was on lined paper and each member of the Company was given his own page, which indicated the date clothing was issued to the man and the quantity. The document recorded only clothing issued to enlisted men, not officers. While this document covered only a brief period of time for just one company, of one regiment in the Stonewall Brigade, it does provide tremendous insight into the quantity of clothing issued to Confederate soldiers.

As we all know, the Confederate Clothing Depots were quite successful in manufacturing uniforms and clothing items, the more serious problem which could not be overcome was the lack of necessary transportation infrastructure to transport these items to the soldiers in the field.

To place the issuance of these items into some context: October 1863 through the first week of May 1864 was a period of relative monotony and quiet for the Stonewall Brigade. After Gettysburg, the Brigade nursed its wounds and slowly tried to recruit and rebuild its numbers, which had decreased so drastically during the bloody campaigns of 1862-63. The Brigade spent most of September and October 1863 on picket duty, and had only a minor encounter with some Federal troops at Bealton Station. From late October through November, the Brigade camped near the Rapidan River and spent its time building breastworks and defensive fortifications. In late November, the Brigade participated in the Mine Run Campaign and suffered fairly heavy casualties (especially the Fourth Virginia) in the Battle of Payne’s Farm, which was a relatively brief and unknown, but bloody engagement. Afterwards, the Brigade went into Winter Camp near Pisgah Church and was responsible for guarding the fords of the Rapidan. The Brigade remained in this vicinity for the rest of the winter and did not break camp until the first week of May, 1864, when it marched off to participate in the Wilderness Campaign and its eventual annihilation at Spotsylvania.

I would like to share some thoughts and observations regarding this itemization of clothing issuances:

Interestingly, during this time period it is well documented that the Stonewall Brigade (and the rest of the ANV) suffered tremendously for a lack of socks. Upon observing the lack of socks by his men in winter quarters, General Robert E. Lee even made a personal appeal to the citizens of Virginia to assist the Stonewall Brigade by supplying them with socks. While a plethora of uniforms and other clothing are accounted for in this record, there are very few instances of the issuance of socks.

There were issuances of half soles and heel taps, as well as consistent issuances of shoes. Between November 2, 1863 and March 18, 1864, Corporal Robert M. Harris was issued three jackets and five pair of shoes!

Overcoats were occasionally issued to some of the men.

Drawers were issued fairly regularly.

There were three types of shirts issued: (1) “Overshirts” (2) “Shirts” and, (3) “Cotton Shirts”

Private John Peck was issued two jackets on November 18, 1863.

“Caps” (which I interpret as “kepis”) were still being issued.

Blankets were also still being issued, although in small numbers.

Some men were issued nothing, or next to nothing. One possible reason is that these men were receiving clothing from family back home.

I hope you find this information interesting. Jason and I went beserk when we found this document. It provides a tantalizing glimpse into one of the hobby’s most controversial and often debated areas – uniforms and clothing. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or would like to share additional observations regarding this document.


Itemization of Clothing Issued to Company E, 4th Virginia Infantry (October 1863 – May 1864):

Sam B. Heyman – 1st Sgt. November 18, 1863 – 1 Jacket, 1 pair of pants, 1 pair of shoes,

John W. Slusser – 2nd Sgt. November 24, 1863 – 1 Blanket, March 14, 1864 – 1 pair of half soles, April 29, 1964 – 1 shirt.

Thomas M. Hearvey – 3rd Sgt. November 7, 1863 – 2 Caps, November 18, 1863 – 1 shirt, November 24, 1863 – 1 shirt, December 9, 1864- 1 pair of pants, 1 pair of drawers, March 29, 1864 – 1 pair of shoes , April 20, 1864 – 1 pair of drawers April 29, 1864 – 1 shirt.

Charles L. Gordon – 4th Sgt. December 19, 1863 – 1 pair of drawers, 1 shirt

David Robinson – 1st Corporal ,November 7, 1863- 1 cap, November 18,1863 – 1 pair of pants, 1 shirt, December 4, 1863 – 2 shirts, 1 cap

Robert M. Harris – 2nd Corporal, November 2, 1863 – 1 shirt, November 7- 1 pair of drawers, November 15 – 1 pair of drawers, 1 jacket, 1 pair of shoes November 18- 1 jacket, 1 pair of pants, 1 pair of shoes, December 12, 1863 – 1 jacket, 1 pair of shoes, December 15 – 1 cap, 1 shirt, February 5, 1864 – 1 pair of shoes, March 18, 1864 – 1 pair of pants, 1 pair of shoes

James Kirby – 3rd Corporal, nothing listed or recorded

S.S. Howe – October 8, 1863 – 1 pair of socks, October 27 – 1 pair of pants November 2, 1863 – 1 overcoat, November 15 – 1 shirt, November 18- 1 pair of shoes, 1 jacket, 1 pair of pants, November 23 – 1 blanket, December 9, 1863- 1 jacket

William A. Bell – nothing listed; service records indicate he was a prisoner from Oct. 1862 until March 1864.

Robert Bibb – October 8, 1863 – 1 pair of socks, November 24 – 1 shirt, February 11, 1864 – 1 pair of shoes.

Dabney W. Burket – November 15, 1863 – 1 shirt

George C. Collins – October 27, 1863 – 1 shirt, November 2, 1863 – 1 pair of drawers, November 7 – 1 shirt, 1 pair of pants.

Albert Craig – November 2, 1863 – 1 pair of drawers, November 15 – 1 pair of shoes, November 18 – 1 shirt, 1 pair of pants, December 9, 1863 1 jacket, 1 pair of drawers, 1 cap, February 7, 1864 – 1 pair of shoes,

Adam Cunningham – November 2, 1863, 1 pair of drawers, November 7, 1 cap, November 15, 1 shirt, November 18, 1 pair of pants, 1 jacket, January 9, 1864 1 pair of pants, April 20, 1 pair of drawers.

Robert Dawson -September 17, 1863 1 jacket, 1 pair of pants.

William Franklin – October 8, 1863 1 pair of socks, October 27 1 pair of pants, November 2 , 1 pair of shoes, 1 pair of drawers, 1 jacket.

Samuel Fisher – nothing listed; captured at Gettysburg July 3, 1863.

Joseph Gordon – December 9, 1863 1 pair of drawers, December 18 1 shirt January 9, 1864, 1 pair of pants, February 7, 1864 1 pair of shoes, 1 jacket, April 29, 1 shirt, 1 pair of shoes.

James Gordon – February 2, 1864, 1 pair of half soles.

John Hodges – October 8, 1863 , 1 pair of socks, 1 pair of pants. November 2, 1 overcoat, 1 pair of drawers. November 18, 1 pair of shoes, 1 jacket, 1 pair of pants. December 9 1 pair of drawers, 1 cap. December 15 1 shirt, 1 pair of drawers. January 27, 1864 1 blanket. April 20 1 pair of drawers, April 29 1 shirt.

John Harvey – October 29, 1863 – 1 pair of pants , 1 shirt.

W. Jernell – October 8, 1863 1 pair of shoes. October 27 1 shirt. December 9 1 pair of drawers, 1 cap. December 12 1 cap.

George Washington Jones – April 20, 1864, 1 pair of drawers. April 29, 1 shirt, 1 pair of pants. May 2, 1 pair of drawers, 1 pair of shoes.

Samuel Keffer October 8, 1863, 1 pair of socks. October 27, 1 shirt, 1 pair of pants. November 2, 1 jacket. January 9, 1864, 1 pair of pants. January 27 1864, 1 pair of shoes.

J.S. Kinzer – April 18, 1864 – 1 pair of pants April 20, 1 pair of drawers.

A.W. Luster – October 27, 1863, 1 shirt.

R. Kinsley – October 9, 1863, 1 shirt, 1 pair of drawers.

James Linkous – April 20, 1864, 1 pair of drawers. April 29 1864, 1 shirt.

James Linkous – February 2, 1864, 1 pair of half soles. February 20, 1 pair of pants, 1 jacket. April 20, 1 pair of drawers.

Levi Lowe – Returned to regiment on January 27, 1864 February 15, 1864, 1 pair of shoes. April 5, 1 pair of pants. April 20, 1 pair of drawers. April 9, 1864, 1 shirt. May 2, 1 shirt.

J. Miller – October 27, 1863, 1 shirt. November 2, 1 pair of shoes, 1 pair of drawers, 1 overcoat. November 18, 1 pair of pants, 1 pair of drawers, 1 pair of shoes. Captured at Battle of Payne’s Farm on November 27, 1863

George Miller – November 7, 1863- 1 shirt.

Peter J. McLemore – October 27, 1863, 1 pair of shoes, 1 over shirt. November 15, 1 shirt. November 18, 1 jacket, 1 pair of pants. December 4, 1 cotton shirt. December 15, 1 over shirt. April 20, 1864, 1 pair of drawers.

J.McCroskey – nothing listed – captured at Payne’s Farm on November 27, 1863

J. McDonald – April 20, 1864 – 1 pair of drawers.

R. Peck- nothing listed. Wounded at Groveton 8/28/62; did not return.

John Peck – October 27, 1863 1 over shirt . November 2, 1 overcoat , 1 pair of drawers. November 7, 1 cap. November 18, 1 pair of pants, 2 jackets.

Erastis Price – April 5, 1864, 1 jacket. March 14, 1 pair of shoes. March 20, 1 pair of drawers. March 29, 1 pair of pants.

John Parkins – No date, 1863, 1 pair of pants, 1 pair of drawers. April 18, 1864 1 pair of pants. April 20 1 pair of drawers. April 29 1 shirt, 1 pair of drawers.

William Paine – October 8, 1863, 1 pair of socks. October 27, 1 pair of shoes, 1 shirt. November 2, 1 pair of drawers. November 18, 1 jacket, 1 pair of pants. January 9, 1864, 1 pair of drawers. April 5, 1 pair of pants. April 20, 1 pair of drawers. April 29, 1 shirt. May 2, 1 pair of drawers.

George Rutledge – October 27, 1863 1 shirt, November 15 1 shirt. December 9, 1 pair of pants. February 5, 1864, 1 pair of shoes. February 20, 1 jacket.

George Richeson – November 7, 1863, 1 cap. November 18, 1 pair of shoes, 1 shirt, 1 pair of drawers. February 2, 1864, 1 pair of half soles and heel taps. March 14, 1 pair of pants. March 18, 1 jacket. March 29, 1 pair of shoes. April 29, 1 shirt, 1 pair of drawers.

J. Slusser nothing listed.

James Smith nothing listed; captured at Gettysburg .

John Snider – October 27, 1863 1 pair of shoes, 1 shirt, 1 pair of pants. November 2, 1 pair of drawers. November 7, 1 jacket, 1 pair of drawers, November 18, 1 pair of shoes. December 9, 1 jacket, 1 overshirt. December 15, 1 pair of drawers. January 9, 1864, 1pair of drawers.

William Taylor – November 2, 1863 1 pair of drawers, November 18, 1 pair of pants, 1 jacket. January 9, 1864 1 pair of drawers. February 20, 1 pair of shoes. April 6, 1 pair of shoes. April 18, 1 pair of pants. April 29 1 shirt.

James Vaden – conscript mustered into service on January 27, 1864 March 14, 1864, 1 pair of half soles. April 20, 1 pair of drawers. April 29, 1 shirt, 1 pair of drawers, 1 pair of pants.

John Witson – November 2, 1863 1 pair of drawers November 7 1 cap, November 18, 1 pair of shoes, 1 pair of pants, 1 jacket. November 23, 1 blanket. December 21 1 cap. February 5, 1864 1 pair of shoes.

A.J. Watson mustered into service on January 25, 1864 February 15, 1864 – 1 pair of pants – 1 pair of half soles

A. J. Ellis October 8, 1863 1 jacket, October 27 1 pair of shoes,

Weaponry of the Stonewall Brigade 

by Eric Mink, 4th Virginia 

Manufacturers of reproduction firearms have expanded their offerings, allowing us a wider variety of choice in what we decide to carry. No longer are we limited to the M1853 Enfield or M1861(3) Springfield, we can now purchase reproduction smoothbores of the M1842 and M1816 conversion variety, as well as a reproduction Austrian Lorenz. For this reason, I thought some information on the weaponry carried by the Stonewall Brigade might be useful.

In the first months of the war, “modern” weaponry was considered a luxury for most Virginia companies, the 1st Virginia Brigade apparently being no exception. In May of 1861, the Rockbridge Grays, later Company H, 4th Virginia Infantry, left Lexington for Harper’s Ferry with the borrowed muskets of the Virginia Military Institute on their shoulders.[1]  These weapons, that could be carried through First Manassas, were M1851 Springfield Cadet muskets, basically a scaled down version of the M1842 with a .57 smoothbore barrel. By September 1861, the state of Virginia was asking for the return of VMI’s weapons, prompting General Jackson to write the Governor’s office stating that “I regret to say that Capt. Updike’s company (Rockbridge Grays)has not turned in the cadet muskets and I fear that I will be unable to forward them to the VMI until their place can be supplied with other percussion muskets.”[2] By the end of the year, these weapons would be replaced. By the same time the following year (1862), it appears that the armament of some members of the 4th Virginia’s other companies had improved only slightly. On May 26, 1862, Ted Barclay of the Liberty Hall Volunteers, Co. I 4th Virginia, wrote home that he was carrying a “Belgium gun.”[3] Struggling with upgrading from second-class weapons apparently was not isolated to the 4th Virginia, at least one other regiment in the Brigade started out with less than adequate firearms.

When the 33rd Virginia rushed the Union guns (Rickett’s Battery) at First Manassas, it is quite possible that close quarters fighting had more to due with their weapons than with their commanders’ idea of tactics. It has been stated that the Shenandoah Sharpshooters, Company K, 33rd Virginia, were initially issued outdated flintlock muskets.[4] No doubt, the men in this company felt the Rockbridge Grays were lucky, for at least they had percussion muskets. By the following year, the old flintlocks were gone, but some members of the 33rd Virginia were still carrying the old reliable smoothbore M1842.

In June of 1865, the 7th New York Infantry were at Groveton, Virginia for the dedication of a monument when they stumbled across a M1842 Harper’s Ferry, dated 1847. In the stock of this battlefield “relic” was carved “A.A. Cameron.” As it turns out, this gun belonged to the Sergeant-Major of the 33rd Virginia, who was killed at 2nd Manassas.[5]

By the following year (1863), the men of the Stonewall Brigade began to receive the newer British Enfields that were coming through the blockade. The George D. Rosensteel family spent their lives collecting Civil War relics and memorabilia, some of the members beginning shortly after the Battle of Gettysburg. Today, the Rosensteel Collection is the nucleus of the Gettysburg National Park’s museum, many of its displays containing items picked up off of the Gettysburg Battlefield. Two of the Rosensteel’s “relics” are representative of the weapons carried by the Stonewall Brigade in July of 1863. In one of the display cases is the broken stock of a British Enfield, from the lockplate cavity to the buttstock, in which is carved “Wm F Beatty/Staunton Rifles.” The owner who left this broken stock on Culp’s Hill was a member of Company G, 5th Virginia. Another display contains a complete M1853 Enfield, marked 1862 – Tower, with “J.B.O./2nd VA Stonewall Brigade” carved in its stock. For the men of the Stonewall Brigade, and the rest of the Army, the Enfield was about the best weapon they could hope to receive from their government.

From existing examples, it appears that the Stonewall Brigade followed the same course that so many Confederate units did, upgrading the weapons whenever possible and/or available: from flintlocks and cadet muskets to the European imports, and from .57(7) caliber to .69, one can imagine what the Brigade’s ordinance officers must have gone through trying to supply the men. These few accounts and examples may not be representative of the entire Brigade, but it does give us some insight into the armament of these men at various periods curing the first half of the war.

[1]. Keith Gibson and George E. Whiting. “The U.S. Model 1851 VMI Cadet Muskets.” North-South Trader’s Civil War. Vol. XXII No 5, Sept.-Oct. 1995, p.39.

[2]. Guy Charleton Lee. The True History of the Civil War. Philadelphia: J.B.Lipincott Company. 1980, pp. 244-45.

[3]. Charles W. Turner, ed. Ted Barclay, Liberty Hall Volunteers: Letters from the Stonewall Brigade. Natural Bridge Station: Rockbridge Publishing Company. 1992, p.71-72.

[4]. William B. Edwards. Civil War Guns. Harrisburg: Stackpole Company. 1962, p.92.

[5]. Stephen W. Sylvia and Michael J. O’Donnell. The Illustrated History of American Civil War Relics. Orange: Moss Publications. 1978, p.83.

A Brief History of the Stonewall Brigade

When the Virginia secession convention voted 81 to 51 to secede from the Union on April 17, 1861, Governor John Letcher called for militia companies in the Shenandoah Valley to form and make all haste to Harper’s Ferry to secure the town and armaments in the town. The 2,611 men that gathered at Harper’s Ferry in April were organized into five regiments of infantry and a battery of artillery and designated as the First Brigade, Virginia Volunteers.  The regiments were made up of forty-nine companies, each with a letter designation and nickname. The men ranged in age from school age to grandfathers.  Nationalities included Germans, Scotch-Irish, and Irish.  Occupations included just about every 19th century occupations that existed with farmer making up about a third of the original number of recruits.

The first battle flag of the 2nd Virginia

The Valley men were placed under the command of then Colonel Thomas J. Jackson. Jackson had been picked to lead the First Virginia Brigade by Robert E. Lee, then an advisor to Jefferson Davis. Jackson had left his teaching position at the Virginia Military Institute to join the Virginia forces when war broke out.

The first action that the brigade saw was at the battle of First Manassas where the brigade’s steadfast action at the Henry House where they earned them the name “Stonewall Brigade”.  Jackson always contended that his brigade had earned the name and not himself.  The brigade followed Jackson through the Romney campaign in the first winter of the war, which solidified the relationship between men and commander.  1862 saw the Valley men on their home turf, defeating three separate Union armies and keeping reinforcements from marching on Richmond during Gen. George McClellan’s failed Peninsula campaign.  The brigade followed Robert E. Lee into Maryland and then to Chancellorsville. The brigade’s love for their first commander was deep and life-long. Jackson’s loss at Chancellorsville in May of 1863 devastated the men in his brigade and throughout the Confederacy. To honor his memory, Jackson’s former unit was officially designated the Stonewall Brigade, the only brigade in Confederate service to have an officially recognized nickname.

At Gettysburg, the brigade arrived after the first day’s fighting concluded and was detached to screen the far left of the Confederate line on July 2. There, skirmishing with Union cavalry on Brinkerhoff’s Ridge prevented them from joining the Confederate evening assault on Culp’s Hill. The following morning on July 3 the Stonewall Brigade participated in a series of assaults which failed to dislodge the Federal troops from their Culp’s Hill breastworks. The Mine Run campaign in November 1863 and the Battle of the Wilderness in early May 1864 reduced the brigade’s numbers, but the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House brought the unit to the brink of destruction. A significant portion of the command was captured May 12, 1863 and the few hundred men remaining were consolidated with the shattered remnants of two other brigades to form a single brigade under General William Terry, former commander of the Fourth Virginia. The Stonewall Brigade was officially dissolved on May 14, 1864, but the men fought on as Terry’s Brigade, following Jubal Early to Monocacy and the outskirts of Washington, DC.

When the end came in April of 1865, only 210 men from the original Stonewall Brigade remained to surrender at Appomattox.  Because of the reputation of the brigade on both sides of the war, the Stonewall Brigade was the first to march through the Federal lines at the surrender.

Commanders of the Stonewall Brigade

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

Thomas J. Jackson – wounded Chancellorsville, 1863, died Guinea Station, 1863

Richard Garnett – KIA Gettysburg, 1863

Charles Winder – KIA Cedar Run, 1862

William Baylor – KIA Second Manassas, 1862

Franklin E. Paxton – KIA Chancellorsville, 1863

James A. Walker – died 1901

William Terry – died 1888

The Regiments of the Stonewall Brigade
(company letter, nickname, where members were from, and first captain)

Second Regiment
Company A – Jefferson Guards, Jefferson Co. WVA, John W. Rowan
Company B – Hamtramck Guards, Shepardstown, WVA, Vincent M. Butler
Company C – Nelson Rifles, Millwood, VA , William Nelson
Company D – Berkeley Border Guards, Berkeley, WVA, J.Q.A. Nadenbousch
Company E – Hedgesville Blues, Martinsburg, WVA, Raleigh T. Colson
Company F – Winchester Riflemen, Winchester, VA, William L. Clark, Jr.
Company G – Botts Greys, Charlestown, WVA, Lawson Botts
Company H – Letcher Riflemen, Duffields community, VA, James H.L. Hunter
Company I – Clarke Rifles, Berryville, VA, Strother H. Bowen
Company K – Floyd Guards, Harper’s Ferry, WVA, George W. Chambers

The battle flag of the 4th Virginia

Fourth Regiment
Company A – Wythe Grays, Wythewille, VA, William Terry
Company B – Fort Lewis Volunteers, Big Spring area, VA, David Edmondson
Company C – Pulaski Guards, Pulaski Co., VA, James Walker
Company D – Smythe Blues, Marion, VA, Albert G. Pendleton
Company E – Montgomery Highlanders, Blacksburg, VA, Charles A. Ronald
Company F – Grayson Daredevils, Elk Creek community, VA, Peyton H. Hale
Company G – Montgomery Fencibles, Montgomery Co., VA, Robert G. Terry
Company H – Rockbridge Grays, Buffalo Forge & Lexington, VA, James G. Updike
Company I – Liberty Hall Volunteers, Lexington, VA, James J. White
Company K – Montgomery Mountain Boys, Montgomery Co., Robert G. Newlee

Battle flag of the 5th Virginia

Fifth Regiment
Company A – Marion Rifles, Winchester, VA, John H.S. Funk
Company B – Rockbridge Rifles, Rockbridge Co. VA, Samuel H. Letcher
Company C – Mountain Guard, Staunton, VA, Richard G. Doyle
Company D – Southern Guard, Staunton, VA, Hazael J. Williams
Company E – Augusta Greys, Greenville community, VA, James W. Newton
Company F – West View Infantry, Augusta Co. VA, St. Francis C. Roberts
Company G – Staunton Rifles, Staunton, VA, Adam W. Harman
Company H – Augusta Rifles, Augusta Co., VA, Absalom Koiner
Company I – Ready Rifles, Sangerville community, VA, Oswald F. Grimman
Company K – Continental Morgan Guards, Frederick Co., John Avis
Company L – West Augusta Guards, Staunton, VA, William S.H. Baylor

Twenty-Seventh Regiment
Company A – Allegheny Light Infantry, Covington, VA,  Thompson McAllister
(later transferred to artillery and known as Carpenter’s Battery)
Company B – Virginia Hiberians, Alleghany Co. VA, Henry H. Robertson
Company C – Allegheny Rifles, Clifton Forge, VA, Lewis P. Holloway
Company D – Monroe Guards, Monroe Co., WVA, Hugh S. Tiffany
Company E – Greenbrier Rifles, Lewisburg, WVA, Robert Dennis
Company F – Greenbrier Sharpshooters, Greenbrier Co., Samuel Brown
Company G – Shriver Grays, Wheeling, WVA, Daniel M. Shriver
Company H – Rockbridge Rifles, originally Co. B, 5th regiment, Samuel Houston Letcher.

Thirty-Third Regiment
Company A – Potomac Guards, Springfield, Hampshire Co. WVA, Phillip T. Grace
Company B – Tom’s Brook Guard, Tom’s Brook, Shenandoah Co. VA, Emanuel Crabill
Company C – Tenth Legion Minute Men, Woodstock, Shenandoah Co., VA, John Gatewood
Company D – Mountain Rangers, Winchester, Frederick Co., VA, Frederick W.M. Holliday
Company E – Emerald Guard, New Market, Shenandoah County VA, Marion M. Sibert
Company F – Independent (Hardy) Greys, Moorefield, Hardy Co. WVA, Abraham Spengler
Company G – Mount Jackson Rifles, Mount Jackson area, Shenandoah Co., VA, George W. Allen
Company H – Page Grays, Luray, Page Co. VA, William D. Rippetoe
Company I – Rockingham Confederates, Harrisonburg, Rockingham Co. VA, John R. Jones
Company K – Shenandoah Sharpshooters, Shenandoah Co. VA, David H. Walton